Failure of Cryogenic Gas Expander Thrust Bearings

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Introduction

An Oxygen production plant inside a steelworks is using a gas liquefaction plant to take Oxygen gas produced during low gas usage periods and liquefy it for use during high gas demand periods.

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Ingersol-Rand KVS412 controls retrofit

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LOCATION:
Oregon City, Oregon

APPLICATION:
Reciprocating Compressor Engines

ENGINE/COMPRESSOR:
Ingersol-Rand KVS412

DISTRIBUTOR/REP:
Coastal Ignition and Control, Scott Robinson

ALTRONIC PRODUCTS:
GOV-10 Electronic Fuel Valve

OVERVIEW:
Looking to replace antiquated hydraulic fuel valves, butterfly valves,

Last Updated on Monday, 08 March 2010 21:02 Read more...
 

Alternative to the OEM for a Frame 3 J Major Overhaul

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Sulzer Hickham was contacted by a major natural gas transmission joint venture company about a problem they were having with a US manufactured twin shaft gas turbine at a compression facility in the northern US. The customer was looking for an alternative service provider to the OEM in order to perform an inspection on the gas turbine unit. Sulzer Hickham was called in on the project because of successful inspections and services previously provided to one of the joint owners.

Last Updated on Sunday, 07 March 2010 19:44 Read more...
 

Importance of Startup Vibration Measurements on Turbomachinery

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After installing new or repaired equipment, obtaining baseline vibration measurements during startup and initial steady state operation can be invaluable in diagnosing abnormal machine behavior. Careful study of vibration characteristics can reveal a range of problems as simple as scratched probe surfaces to more serious issues of bearing oil whirl, operation near critical speeds, distortion due to piping strain, and many others.

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Fatigue Failure of Compressor Bolting

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Introduction

A plant operator on a routine walk around his plant taking readings noticed that one of the cylinders on a reciprocating compressor was moving up and down.

Immediately realising something was wrong he shut the unit down straight away and informed the plant management.

Last Updated on Thursday, 04 March 2010 20:22 Read more...
 

UTILIZING AIRBORNE/STRUCTURE BORNE ULTRASOUND FOR CONDITION MONITORING PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE INSPECTIONS

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BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

One of the main reasons for the advances in condition monitoring programs has been the development and use of technologies such as ultrasound, oil analysis, vibration, and infrared. This article will examine one of these technologies, airborne/structure borne ultrasound. This technology can be considered an integrating technology since it can be used with infrared and vibration inspections as well as stand alone to perform a multiplicity of inspection activities. Instruments based on this technology can monitor a wide range of plant operations and yet are simple enough to be used with minimal training for basic, effective inspection routines.

Last Updated on Monday, 01 March 2010 21:02 Read more...
 

Reliability Improvement to High Pressure Gas Compressors

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Introduction

A client has two reciprocating gas compressors installed, the duty of which is to fill high pressure tube trailers for onward shipping by road to customers.

Despite the product being highly profitable, the client was unable to make full use of the available and proven production capacity from the factory due to the extremely unreliable high pressure compression section on the plant.

Last Updated on Sunday, 28 February 2010 15:21 Read more...
 

FUEL FIRED FURNACES

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INTRODUCTION

Furnaces are constructed as a rectangular 'Box' or a cylindrical 'Bottle' shape. A Furnace consists of a combustion chamber or 'Firebox', in which a fuel is burned to produce large amounts of heat energy for addition to process fluids. (The firebox is often called the 'Radiant Section' of the furnace where the heat transfer principle is that of Radiation). The side walls of the firebox, and, in some cases the floor and roof, are lined with the tubes carrying the process fluid.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 19:37 Read more...
 

HEAT TRANSFER - PRINCIPLES & EQUIPMENT

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Introduction

Heat energy can be transferred in three ways. These are :

  1. BY CONDUCTION
  2. BY CONVECTION
  3. BY RADIATION

1. HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION

This kind of heat transfer can only take place in solids and is considered as the slowest form of heat transfer. Solids which allow the flow of heat are referred to as ' Conductors ' and, those which do not conduct heat are called ' Insulators '

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 19:40 Read more...
 

Refrigeration

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INTRODUCTION

"Refrigeration is the Science of the Production of 'Coldness'"

Refrigeration is a cooling process used to remove heat energy from a substance by the evaporation principle, to produce a temperature below that of its surroundings.

Simple examples of refrigeration are:

Last Updated on Tuesday, 16 March 2010 08:49 Read more...
 

Heat and Temperature

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INTRODUCTION

'HEAT' is a form of energy due to the motion of molecules in a substance'

Heat can only be measured by specialised equipment.

As heat energy is added to, or removed from, a substance, the molecular motion increases or decreases respectively.

'TEMPERATURE'
Is the measurement of 'HEAT INTENSITY' (How Hot or How Cold), and can be measured by using a Thermometer.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 19:45 Read more...
 

Evaporation

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INTRODUCTION

In our everyday lives we come across the process of 'Evaporation'. This phenomenon is a property possessed by all liquids and is the ability of a liquid to change to vapour at a temperature well below its boiling point at atmospheric pressure.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 19:48 Read more...
 

Saving Money by Going "GREEN"

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By installing an Altronic GTI bi-fuel kit, 'CNPC-International Aktobe Petroleum' has proven that saving the environment sometimes saves you money!


Being one of the largest Oil & Gas companies from Kazakhstan, “CNPC-International Aktobe Petroleum” feels an obligation to invest in programs preserving the environment. The ongoing gas-utilization programs are an example. Rather then flaring the associated gas, CNPC has built multiple gas-plants. Already for several decades, gas is also transported to Aktobe City and distributed to house-holds.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 09 March 2010 10:09 Read more...
 

Dehydration

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Before starting on the processes used in the treatment of natural gas for the removal of water vapour, look at the following diagrams that show definitions of 'Absorption' and 'Adsorption'.

ABSORPTION :
Uses liquid desiccants to take in gases. These liquids are called 'Absorbents' and are used not only for water removal but also to remove other unwanted gases from the natural gas, such as:

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2). These processes use different absorbents to the Glycol used in dehydration. These processes are discussed in other booklets.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 19:52 Read more...
 

Separation & Separators

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SEPARATOR FUNCTIONS

A SEPARATOR is a vessel in which a mixture of immiscible fluids are separated; e.g. Crude oil, Natural gas and Water. A separator may be a 'Horizontal', 'Vertical' or 'Spherical' vessel and generally consists of the following :

  1. A primary separation section to remove the bulk of the liquid from the gas.
  2. Sufficient liquid capacity to handle surges of liquid from the line.
  3. Sufficient length or height to allow the small droplets to settle out by gravity (to prevent undue entrainment).
  4. A means of reducing turbulence in the main body of the separator so that proper settling may take place.
  5. A mist extractor to capture entrained droplets or those too small to settle by gravity.
Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 19:58 Read more...
 

The Origin & Production of Crude Oil & Natural Gas

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Introduction

Many people believe that crude oil and natural gas are contained in huge cave-like structures deep underground. Geological studies of sedimentary rocks indicate that oil originated during the deposit of dead marine organisms together with sand, silt and other sediments which formed the rocks under the sea beds. The formation of layers of rocks continued to take place and to build up containing the organic matter of the marine organisms and to create high pressure and temperature. In the absence of oxygen, and under the effect of the combined factors of pressure, temperature, catalysis and time, the chemical components of these marine substances have undergone break-down and transformation into HYDROCARBON compounds trapped

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 20:01 Read more...
 

Publish an Article on Compressionjobs.com!

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Job Seekers - Publish an Article on compressionjobs.com!

You're a Rotating or Reciprocating Equipment specialist looking for a new position?
Consider writing an article to publish on compressionjobs.com illustrating your specific expertice and experience!
You'll be hitting two birds with one stone:

Last Updated on Monday, 05 April 2010 07:17 Read more...
 

Problems with Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator Design

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Introduction

At a large Petro Chemical manufacturing complex there is a Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Plant. The existing gas turbines were at the end of their economic lives and a project was underway to retrofit one of the gas turbines with a more modern, more efficient engine.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 20:25 Read more...
 

Combustion Gas Turbines

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INTRODUCTION

In operating areas where suitable water for steam generation is in short supply and natural gas is plentiful, Combustion Gas Turbines are used to drive other Machines. A Combustion Gas Turbine, like any other internal combustion engine, is a machine which converts the Thermal Energy of burning fuel into useful power which, in turn is converted into Mechanical Energy. Just like a windmill, waterwheel or steam turbine, a combustion gas turbine depends on the flow of fluid for its driving force. The driving fluid in this case, is very high temperature, compressed air. Let us first begin again with our pin-wheel. If we place a running fan in front of the pin-wheel, the air flow from the fan will cause the pin-wheel to rotate. Now, in theory, if we connect the fan to the pin-wheel by a shaft, when the fan is running, the pinwheel is rotating and, through the shaft should rotate the fan. At this point we should be able to switch off the power to the fan and the system will continue to run - the pin-wheel driving the fan and the air from the fan driving the pin-wheel.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 20:06 Read more...
 

Introduction to Turbines & Steam Turbines

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FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND OPERATION

A. THE WINDMILL

Turbines have been in use for many years. Early turbines consisted of 'Sails' or blades mounted at an angle on a central hub (as in the child's pin-wheel in Figure: 1).

The hub was then connected to a shaft and, as the wind blew, due to the angle of the sails, the sails rotated causing the hub to rotate and so turned the shaft. The shaft was then coupled to a ' Mill-Wheel ' used for grinding corn to make flour and other uses.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 24 February 2010 20:09 Read more...
 

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